From the list below select the letter that the Camera term begins with. Or if the term begins with a number select "Starts with a number".

Starts with a number

1-Area (focus)

The camera focuses on the subject in the AF area on the screen.

2nd Curtain Synchro

2nd curtain synchro activates the flash just before the shutter closes when taking pictures of moving objects such as cars using a slow shutter speed.

225-Area (focus)

Up to 225 AF areas can be focused. This is effective when a subject is not in the center of the screen.


The more light information that the image sensor receives, the higher the image quality. The 3MOS Sensor is structurally designed to prevent light loss and produce elaborately detailed images.  A prism divides the light into three primary colors (R, G and B). A full 100% of the light is transmitted. Color reproduction is excellent.

4K Live Cropping

Recording Motion Pictures that Pan and Zoom While Maintaining a Fixed Camera Position. By cropping your motion picture down from the 4K angle of view to Full High Definition, you can record a motion picture that pans and zooms in/out while leaving the camera in a fixed position.

4K resolution

Also called 4K, refers to a horizontal resolution on the order of 4,000 pixels and vertical resolution on the order of 2,000 pixels. Several 4K resolutions exist in the fields of digital television and digital cinematography.

4K Photo

You can take a high-speed burst of pictures at 60 frames/second and save the desired pictures, each made up of 8 million pixels (approx.).

5-Axis Dual I.S. Eliminates Blur

5-axis Dual I.S. (Image Stabiliser) 2* intelligent compensation enables up to 5-stops of slower shutter speeds even through telephoto lenses. This nearly eliminates shake in both body and lens from wide-angle to tele-end. It also works in both photo and video recording, including 4K video. The astonishing power of the 5-axis Body I.S. corrects shake for all lenses, including classic lenses not equipped with O.I.S.

  • 5-axis Dual I.S. 2 works when attaching the lens that are compatible with it. Firmware update of the lens is also required.
  • Based on the CIPA standard [Yaw/Pitch direction: focusing distance f=50-140mm (35mm film camera equivalent f=100-280mm), when H-FS14140 is used.]

6K Photo

You can take a high-speed burst of pictures at 30 frames/second and save the desired pictures, each made up of 18 million pixels (approx.), extracted from their burst file.
“6K PHOTO” is a high-speed burst recording function which allows you to save pictures extracted from images recorded with an aspect ratio for still pictures, 4:3 or 3:2, and with an effective picture size equivalent to a particular number of pixels (approx. 18 megapixels) produced by images with a size of 6K (approx. 6,000 (horizontal) x 3,000 (vertical)).

6K/4K PHOTO Noise Reduction

Reducing the noise produced by high sensitivity. This function allows you to reduce the noise produced during recording by high ISO sensitivity when saving pictures.

Camera terms that begin with the letter A


Abbreviation for Automatic Exposure. The camera's exposure sensor measures the brightness of the subject and automatically calculates an exposure. Generally, there are three types of AE: Program AE, Aperture Priority AE and Shutter Priority AE.

AE Lock

Abbreviation for Automatic Exposure Lock. Once the camera has calculated the AE values, activating the AE Lock saves those values.


Abbreviation for Automatic Focus. This feature automatically focuses the camera's lens. Also known as "Auto Focus."

AF Customize

With Customized AF settings, it is possible to adjust AF directionality depending on the shooting scene.

AF Frame

Abbreviation for Auto Focus Frame. Visible in the viewfinder, this frame indicates the area used for auto focus.

AF Lens

Abbreviation for Auto Focus Lens. A term for lenses specifically designed to use the camera's auto focus function.

AF Lock

Abbreviation for Auto Focus Lock. Once the camera has focused the lens, activating AF Lock locks the focus at that distance.

AF Tracking

Once you focus on your subject, AF Tracking automatically and continuously tracks it and keeps it in focus and proper exposure.
In some models, this function can also be used when shooting moving images.

AF/AE Lock

Fixing the focus and the exposure. Thus function is useful when you want to take a picture of a subject outside the AF area or the contrast is too strong and you cannot achieve appropriate exposure.

AF Zone Selectable

The focus area group size and position can be customized for Multi AF / Custom Multi AF.


Working much like the pupil of the eye, the movement of the lens' internal aperture blades closes or opens the aperture to adjust the amount of light passing through the lens. The value inscribed on the aperture ring of the lens (F1.4, F2, F2.8, etc.) represents the size of the aperture and is called the "aperture value" or "f-stop." As this value increases, the aperture narrows, or is "closed," and as it decreases, the aperture widens, or is "opened."

Aperture Priority, AE Mode

Aperture Priority, AE Mode when you set the aperture value, the camera automatically optimizes the shutter speed for the brightness of the subject.

Artistic Retouch

This feature lets you change the photos you take into artistic images with exactly the mood you want, by using versatile retouch effects and filters.

Aspect Ratio

Represents the ratio of the screen's height to the width. The ratio with 35mm film is 2:3. Digital cameras are usually 3:4.

Auto Exposure

A system for automatically setting exposure by choosing a shutter speed and aperture value according to the current light conditions. This is commonly referred to as "Auto Mode", and is the best settings for most conditions. It enables the photographer to concentrate on the subject while the camera adapts to optimum performance for the environment.

Auto Flash

A flash unit that uses a special light receptor to automatically calculate the required amount of flash light required, based on the distance from the subject.

Auto Focus (AF)

Automatically focuses the camera's lens on the subject. There are two types of auto focus system. The active type measures distance using an infrared ray emitted from the camera. The passive type calculates distance by analyzing the image captured by the lens. Most of today's digital cameras use the passive type.

AFC (Auto Focus Continuous)

In this mode, while the shutter button is pressed halfway, focusing is constantly performed to match the movement of the subject.

AFF (Auto Focus Flexible)

In this mode, focusing is performed automatically when the shutter button is pressed halfway. If the subject moves while the shutter button is pressed halfway, the focus is corrected to match the movement automatically.

AFS (Auto Focus Single)

Focus is set automatically when the shutter button is pressed halfway. It stays locked while the button is pressed halfway, allowing you to record different compositions.

Automatic Exposure Bracketing (AEB)

Automatically takes multiple pictures with a single press of the shutter, each using a different exposure. (Usually average, over and under exposed.) This reduces the chance of an incorrect exposure.

Auto Retouch

The Auto Retouch function adjusts contrast and brightness to give a different impression to the photo with just the press of a button.

Auto White Balance

Auto White Balance is a function that automatically recognizes the type of light source and gives appropriate compensation to the color reproduction of the image. There are some modes dedicated to the type of light source, such as daylight mode, incandescent light mode or fluorescent light mode.


Abbreviation for Aperture Value.


(Advanced Video Coding High Definition) is a file-based format for the digital recording and playback of high-definition video.
This format is well suited to playback on a TV, with a maximum bit rate of 24 Mbps

AVCHD Progressive

An extension of AVCHD supporting 60p and 50p, with a maximum bit rate of 28 Mbps.


Abbreviation for Audio Visual Interleaved. One format of video that can be read by video player software (like Windows Media Player). Uses the ".avi" file extension.

AWB Auto White Balance.

Feature that automatically adjusts the camera's white balance by setting the image's color temperature to produce colors the same as those seen by the naked eye.

Camera terms that begin with the letter B

Back Focus

Used to describe the relationship of the distance of the lens to the image device. This distance is critical to maintain the proper depth of field through changing focal lengths and varying light conditions. The correct back focus is normally achieved by adjusting the image pick-up device on the camera itself.


The term used when light strikes the subject from the rear. Normally this causes the subject to become a silhouette, however, using a flash to light the subject from the front will prevent this effect.

Backlight Compensation

An automatic feature on some cameras. When there is a backlight, the subject appears darker and the camera will automatically attempt to correct it by increasing the brightness of the picture.

Beauty Retouch

Beauty Retouch lets you enhance the photos you have taken by applying make-up and giving the skin greater transparency and smoothness.


Graphically describes the tone of a photograph. Blocking refers to the subject's shadow sections, where tone detail has turned to black. Blow-out refers to highlight sections, where tone detail has turned to white.


Standard image file format for Windows. .bmp

Bouncing Light

Flash or tungsten light bounced off a reflector (such as the ceiling or walls) to give the effect of natural or available light.

Bracket Recording

Taking Pictures While Adjusting a Setting Automatically. You can take multiple pictures while automatically adjusting a setting by pressing the shutter button.
Bracket recording examples:

  • Exposure Bracket
  • Aperture Bracket
  • Focus Bracket
  • White Balance Bracket

Built-in Flash

A small internal flash unit located at or near the top of the camera.

Bulb (B)

In this shooting mode, pressing and holding down the shutter button keeps the camera's shutter open and continues to expose the film.

Burst Mode

Pictures are taken continuously while the shutter button is pressed.

Burst Shooting with AF Tracking

When taking burst shots of fast-moving subjects, an AF Tracking function that repeatedly focuses is essential.
However, when AF Tracking is used, the burst speed is reduced.

Camera terms that begin with the letter C


Abbreviation for Charge Coupled Device. CCDs are one of a number of image sensor types that convert light focused on them by the lens into electrical signals. In a digital camera, the CCD performs the same basic function as the film of a silver halide film camera.

Center-weighted metering

While measuring the overall brightness of a scene, this light metering method places greatest importance on the central part of the image. This method is popular since the subject is often placed in the center of the scene.

Close-Up Lens

Like a filter, this accessory lens is attached to the front of the lens and allows photography of subjects at short distances. The convex surface of the lens acts like a magnifying glass.


Abbreviation for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Similar to a CCD-type image sensor. Capable of extremely fast signal readout and uses comparatively little power. Other merits include compact design and low manufacturing costs.

Color Balance

Describes the accuracy of the colors reproduced on color film, a print or monitor. Correctly reproduced colors indicate a good color balance, and incorrectly reproduced colors indicate a poor color balance.

Color Sampling

Color sampling refers to the sampling ratio for the chrominance (color) signal when compressing digital images.

Color Temperature

Color temperature is a chromatic characteristic of visible light, and differs according to the light source. It can be indicated using the numerical value "K" (Kelvin) and is measured using a color thermometer.

Compensating the Exposure

Use this function when you cannot achieve appropriate exposure due to the difference in brightness between the subject and the background.

Conversion Lens

Attached to the front of the lens to change the focal length. While many types of conversion lenses are available, the most popular are wide-angle, telephoto, and fisheye.

Creative Control Mode

LUMIX - Taking pictures with different image effects. This mode records with additional image effects. You can set the effects to add by selecting example images and checking them on the screen.

Creative Retouch

Using unique filters, attractive pictures can be created with a single operation. Examples of Creative retouch modes are:

  • Expressive - A pop art style image effect that emphasizes the color.
  • Retro - A soft image effect that gives the appearance of a tarnished photo or video.
  • High Key - An image effect with bright ambience.
  • Dynamicmonochrome - A monochrome image effect with higher contrast and a more dramatic atmosphere.
  • Toy Effect -This effect produces vignetting, making it look like the image was taken with a toy camera.
  • Soft Focus - A soft appearance image effect created by intentionally blurring the entire image.

Custom Mode

Lumix cameras allow you to set Custom modes so that you can register your preferred settings.

Custom Multi AF

The Custom Multi AF mode allows you to freely select an array of blocks inside the 225 focusing area.

Camera terms that begin with the letter D


Abbreviation for Design Rule for Camera File System - an industry standard for recording digital images. This system provides rules for the file types used to record image data to a recording media (such as a memory card).

Defocus Control

Taking a picture with a blurred background.

Depth of Field (DOF)

When a subject is brought into focus, the area just in front of and behind the focus point will also be in clear focus. This range of clarity is called depth of field. Depth of field increases as lens' field of view widens, as in a wide-angle lens, and also as the aperture size is reduced (f-stop increases).

DFD (Depth from Defocus)

This spatial recognition technology (DFD technology) enables the recognition of space based on live images with different focus positions, and the distance to the subject is computed at high speed. This spatial recognition technology can calculate in an instant the distances to all objects in the captured image. This high-speed auto focus allows the user focus lens to approach the in-focus position at once and without hesitation.

Digital Zoom

A feature found in many digital cameras that takes a portion of the image's data and displays it at full size, producing an enlargement (magnification) of the original image, similar to the effect of using a telephoto lens. This process, however, is different from the magnification produced using the camera's optical zoom, and the stronger the digital zoom, the more the image will degrade.

Diopter Correction

Allows the photographer to adjust the focus of the camera's optical viewfinder to match his/her eyesight.


Abbreviation for Digital Print Order Format. A camera function that records printing information on storage media.

Drive Mode

Determineswhat the camera will do when you press the shutter button. Drive modes examples:

  • Single - Only one picture is recorded.
  • Burst - Recordings are made in succession while the shutter button is pressed.
  • 6K/4K PHOTO -A 6K/4K photo is recorded.
  • Post Focus- Post Focus recording is performed.
  • Self Timer - Recording takes place after the set time has elapsed.
  • Time Lapse/ Animation - Pictures are recorded with Time Lapse Shot or Stop Motion Animation.

Camera terms that begin with the letter E

Effective Pixels

Slightly less than the total number of pixels normally stated for an image sensor (CCD, CMOS, etc.), this term represents the actual number of pixels used to record an image.

Electronic Shutter

Magnetically controls the opening and closing of the shutter. This system electronically controls the exposure at the image sensor. The shutter speed is fast, and no shutter sound or shock occurs.

Electronic Viewfinder

The electronic viewfinder lets you confirm the image in real time as it passes through the lens and is processed by the image sensor. This function is called “live view.”


Abbreviation for Exposure Value. Indicates the amount of exposure. Using a baseline exposure of F1.0 and a shutter speed of 1 second as "EV0," each increase in EV (EV1, 2, 3, etc.) indicates an increase of one level (setting) in either aperture or shutter speed.

Ex. Tele Conv.

Extended Tele Conversion enables you to take pictures that are further enlarged without deteriorating the picture quality.


Abbreviation for Exchangeable Image File. This digital camera image data format allows thumbnails and photo-related information to be stored in the header of image files. Photo information includes time, date, camera name, focus distance, aperture, shutter speed, exposure, white balance and more. This information can then be read and displayed by "exif-aware" image processing programs.


  • Exposure determines the brightness of the photo.
  • It refers to the total amount of light reaching the image sensor.
  • Exposure is determined by the combination of the lens aperture value and shutter speed.

Exposure Compensation

Depending on the subject's degree of reflectance or lighting condition, AE photography can easily produce exposures that are either over or under the optimum. To compensate for this type of error, plus or minus compensation can be added to correct the exposure, which is called exposure compensation.

Exposure Meter

A device that measures the amount of light shining on the subject to determine the correct aperture and shutter speed. Exposure meters are either built into the camera or hand held.

Camera terms that begin with the letter F

Face Detection AF/AE

The camera detects faces in the frame and adjusts the focus and exposure to capture them properly. This allows you to shoot beautiful portraits without any hassle.

Face/Eye Detection

The camera automatically detects the person’s face and eyes. An eye closer to the camera will be in focus, while the exposure will be optimized for the face.

Face Recognition

Remembers faces that have been registered in the camera and provides the faces with optimal focus and exposure.

Film Speed

A standard created by the International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, designed to show a film's sensitivity to light, e.g., "ISO400." When the ISO number increases, the film's sensitivity to light also increases, and as it decreases the film's sensitivity decreases.


Usually attached to the front of a lens, a wide variety of filters are available, including UV filters that regulate light and cut UV, color filters, polarizing filters, cross filters, and rainbow filters.


Popular interface standard for connecting PCs and peripheral devices. Allows 400-Mbps high-speed data transfer. "FireWire" is the name used by Apple Corporation and is identical to IEEE 1394. It is also called "i.Link."

Fisheye Lens

A special lens that provides about a 180- degree field of view. In order to capture all 180 degrees in a single image, the picture will become distorted into an ellipse, like when looking through the peephole in a door.


Indicates the aperture value. Commonly used f-stops include F2.0, F2.8, F4.0, and others. Smaller values indicate that a larger amount of light is allowed to enter the camera. As the value increases, the aperture becomes smaller, reducing the amount of light entering the camera.

Fixed Lens

A lens with a single focal point, or basically any lens that is not a zoom lens. Fixed lenses are more compact than zoom lenses and generally offer high performance in rendering images.

Fixed Lens Camera

Today, these are primarily disposable and low- price compact cameras, although the term includes any camera that does not have a focusable lens.

Flash Range

Describes the distance that can be accurately metered by an automatic flash unit. As a film's sensitivity to light decreases (the ISO number becomes smaller), this range becomes narrower, and as it increases, the range expands. Similarly, opening the aperture wider expands this range, while stopping the aperture down narrows it.

Focal Length

The distance from the middle point of the lens to the focus point. Assuming that the camera's position is fixed, the larger this value becomes, the larger the subject appears (telephoto). Conversely, the smaller this value becomes, the smaller the subject becomes (wide angle).

Focal Plane Shutter

This shutter system provides two curtains (a front curtain and a rear curtain) in front of the image sensor, and is commonly used on SLR and other cameras with interchangeable lenses. The time difference between the movement of the front curtain and the movement of the rear curtain determines the exposure time (the shutter speed).


The point where rays of light from a lens converge to form a sharp image.

Focus Mode

The method for achieving focus when the shutter button is pressed halfway is set.

Focus Peaking

The Focus Peaking function shows the peak of focus so that you can see the focus position while monitoring the subject in live view.

Focus-Priority AF

A type of autofocus mode. Pressing the shutter button starts the autofocus distance calculation and when focus is taken, the shutter is fired.

Focus Stacking

With Focus Stacking, you can also merge multiple pictures with different focus points to widen the focus range. This function is suited for recording still objects

Focus Transition

The camera moves focus from the current position to a pre-registered position.


Refers to the composition of a scene's subject and background regarding positioning, balance, etc. Framing, i.e., deciding which elements to use and which to hide, is one method the photographer uses to create the desired image.


The opposite of back-focus, front-focus is where the camera is focused on a point in front of the subject. While doing this intentionally may be useful at times, this term is most often used to describe a mistake.


Indicates the aperture value. Commonly used f-stops insclude F2.0, F2.8, F4.0, and others. Smaller values indicate that a larger amount of light is allows to enter the camera. As the value increases, the aperture becomes smaller, reducing the amount of light entering the camera.

Function [ FN ] buttons

A feature that allows you toassign recording functions, etc. to specific buttons and icons on a camera.

Camera terms that begin with the letter G

GB (Gigabyte)

Unit of data measurement. 1000 times larger than 1MB (1000MB = 1GB).


One type of image file format. File sizes are typically small, hence .gif images are often used on Web sites.

Camera terms that begin with the letter H


This interface allows the video, audio and control signals to be sent and received with a single cable.

HDMI is used mainly in consumer equipment.

High-Speed Shutter

A high-speed shutter enables shutter speeds of 1/250th of a second or faster. These fast shutter speeds allow you to freeze moving subjects and enjoy unique photographic effects.


A graphical representation of the range of light in a scene, from the lightest point to the darkest point. Histogram data is typically displayed on a monitor, such as a digital camera's LCD monitor, electronic viewfinder or on a PC. This allows the photographer to check for blow-outs in highlights and blocked shadows.

Hot Shoe

Equipped with a flash contact, this device allows the attachment of a clip-on type flash unit.

Hybrid O.I.S +

HYBRID O.I.S. + uses five-axis correction to thoroughly suppress blurring all the way from wide-angle to powerful zoom shots. It also achieves superb effects when shooting while walking. This lets you capture crisp, clear images, without blurring, in almost every shooting situation.

Camera terms that begin with the letter I

IEEE 1394

Popular interface standard for connecting PCs and peripheral devices. Allows 400-Mbps high-speed data transfer. Referred to as "FireWire" by Apple Corporation. It is also called "i.Link."

iHandheld Night Shot (Intelligent Handheld Night Shot)

While securely preventing hand-shake from handheld shooting, the camera overlays several automatically shot high-speed consecutive photos to produce one clear, vivid night photo with minimal noise and blurring.


An iA Scene detect mode on some LUMIX cameras. When there is, for example, strong contrast between the background and the subject, multiple still pictures are recorded with differing exposures and combined to create a single still picture rich in gradation. [iHDR] works automatically as needed. When it does, [HDR] is displayed on the screen.


Name for a digital video (DV) camera's DV terminal. Identical to IEEE 1394 and FireWire.

Image Pixel

A digital image is simply a collection of tiny squares or points. These points are called image pixels or pixels. When talking about a CCD's image pixels, they refer to the smallest element of that device.

Image Sensor

Converts the light intensity that passes through the lens into corresponding electrical signals. Typical examples are CCD and CMOS image sensors.

Image Size

Describes the size of a digital image using the number of pixels it contains. Image size depends on the number of image pixels in the camera's CCD. For example, the largest image that a 2,000,000-pixel (2-megapixel) camera could produce would be 1600 x 1200 pixels, and the largest image a 3-megapixel camera could produce would be 2048 x 1536 pixels.

Image Stamp

With the Image Stamp function, you can decorate photos with various stamp designs.

Intelligent Auto Mode (iA Mode)

Taking Pictures using the Automatic Function.A mode on cameras that will make the optimal settings for the subject and scene.

Intelligent Auto Plus Mode

On LUMIX cameras the intelligent Auto Plus Mode allows you to adjust some settings such as the brightness, color tone and defocus control while also using Intelligent Auto Mode for other settings.

Intelligent Burst Mode

Automatically adjusts the number of consecutive frames based on the speed of subject movement (2 to 10 frames per second).

Intelligent D-range Control

Optimizes the exposure for each part of an image, preventing blocked shadows and blown highlights and helping to ensure proper gradation and details.

Intelligent Exposure

Corrects the brightness in parts of the image that are too dark due to insufficient lighting, backlighting or use of the flash.

Intelligent ISO Control

If the subject moves as you shoot, it automatically adjusts the ISO sensitivity and shutter speed to help prevent motion blur.

Intelligent Resolution Technology

The image is divided into contour areas, texture areas and smooth areas. Optimum image processing is applied to each type of area. This gives a high resolution look to digital zoom images as well as ordinary images.

Intelligent Scene Selector

The Intelligent Scene Selector senses the ambient conditions and automatically selects one of seven* Scene Modes.
The number of Scene modes varies depending on the model.

Intelligent Zoom

Intelligent Zoom virtually extends the optical zoom ratio to its 1.3x equivalent (approx.) maintaining picture quality even when combining the digital zoom. Intelligent Zoom works with both stills and movies.


Allows the manipulation of a digital image (expand, reduce, rotate, etc.) by inserting quasi-pixels between actual pixels in order to preserve the quality of the original as much as possible.

ISO (Sensitivity)

ISO sensitivity expresses the light-capturing capability of a digital camera. It is defined by the International Standard Organization. The higher the value of ISO sensitivity, the greater the camera's ability to capture clear images in dim lighting. ISO sensitivity can be raised or lowered according to the shooting situation.

Camera terms that begin with the letter J


JPEG is an abbreviation for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, and stands for a highly efficient algorithm for compressing images. The file extension".jpg" indicates that this algorithm was used for an image's file format. Widely used in digital cameras. This compression cannot be reversed and, as a result, using a high level of JPEG compression will reduce image quality due to the creation of noise.

Camera terms that begin with the letter K

KB (Kilobyte)

A unit of data measurement (1024 bytes = 1KB).

K (Kelvin)

A value used to indicate the color temperature of light.

Camera terms that begin with the letter L

LCD Monitor

A liquid crystal type of display screen. Common types of digital camera LCD monitors are MIMs, TFTs, and polysilicon TFTs.

Leica Dicomar Lens

The Leica Dicomar lens is a high-performance lens that clears the stringent inspection standards of Leica Camera AG. Because camcorders don't generally use interchangeable lenses, the lens that is equipped has an especially large effect on the image quality.

Lens Hood

When recording into strong backlight, irregular reflection may occur within the lens. The lens hood reduces the inclusion of unwanted light in the recorded images and lowers the drop in contrast. The lens hood cuts off excess lighting and improves the picture quality

Lens Mount

A metal device used to attach the lens to the camera body. Found on cameras with interchangeable lenses (single lens reflex, etc.). Each camera manufacturer uses their own design mount, and with only a few exceptions they are not interchangeable.

Lens Shutter

This shutter system combines a number of fan-shaped metal plates (shutter blades) inside the lens, which open and close simultaneously. The shutter can be built into a small lens for a compact design, so this system is often used for compact digital cameras.

Light Metering

Light metering refers to measuring the brightness of your subject. The camera determines the exposure in response to the subject's brightness.

Light Sensitivity

Also referred to as ISO sensitivity.

Level Gauge

Allows camera tilt to be checked by an on screen display on the LCD monitor. This makes it easy to keep the camera level even during handheld, low-angle, and high-angle shooting.

Lithium Battery

A popular type of battery that provides optimal discharge voltage for operating a digital camera (e.g., to provide flash power, display data, zoom the lens, etc.). This battery's advantages include superior power storage, long life (5 to 10 times longer than manganese batteries) and the ability to operate even at -40°C.

Loop Recording (video)

Even when recording uses up the card’s free space, the camera continues the recording by deleting the oldest segment of the recorded data.


LUX is a measure of light intensity. The amount of light that a candle casts on a 12" x 12" (30.5 cm x 30.5 cm) piece of white paper, at a distance of 12" (30.5 cm), is defined as 1 Fc (Foot Candle). 1 Fc = 10 LUX, therefore, 1 LUX = 1/10 Fc.


Abbreviation for Live View Finder. Allow the photographer to use the LCD as a (bigger) viewfinder.

Camera terms that begin with the letter M

Macro Lens

Specially designed to magnify a subject. Often used for photographs of small subjects, such as insects or flowers. Captures a large amount of detail, and at close distances magnification of 1/2 or more is possible.

Macro Photography

Also called a close-up, this refers to photographing subjects at close range. It often brings out normally unseen details or perspective.

Manual Exposure

Lets you set both the shutter speed and aperture. This mode allows you to shoot images just as you conceive them.

Master Pedestal

Is an adjustment of black, which is fundamental color of video. Setting of Master Pedestal seriously matters to the texture of image so that it needs serious adjustment especially when the footage is composed of plural video source shot by separate camera. Lowering the Master Pedestal brings crisper black to the image while raising it brings foggy effect with lower contrast.

Maximum Aperture (F-Stop)

The smallest f-stop value for the lens (maximum brightness). Expressed as, for example, "F2.8" or "1:2.8," the smaller this value is, the brighter the lens is. With a zoom lens, a value of "F2.8-4" indicates that the maximum aperture will vary from F2.8 to F4.0, depending on the focal distance.

MB (Megabyte)

A unit of data measurement that is 1000 times larger than 1KB (1000KB = 1MB).

Mechanical Shutter

Shutter mechanisms can be roughly divided into mechanical types and electronic types. Mechanical types provide a physical curtain to block the optical axis, and it achieves the proper exposure by opening and closing the curtain. The fact that its shutter speed is comparatively slow is a disadvantage.

MEGA O.I.S. (Optical Image Stabilizer)

Gyrosensors built into the lens detect hand-shake and an O.I.S. (optical image stabilizer) shifts to compensate. This helps you get beautiful, blur-free photos.

Megapixel (MPX)

The term for one million (1,000,000) pixels.


Abbreviation for Manual Focus. Whereas AF indicates the automatic focusing of the lens, "MF" indicates the focusing of the lens by hand (manually).

Mic Level Limiter

The camera adjusts the sound input level automatically, minimizing the sound distortion (crackling noise) when the volume is too high.

Miniature Effect

You can take pictures with an imaging effect which defocuses the surroundings to make them look like a diorama.

Mode Dial

A dial that switches a cameras recording mode.


Often appears in images containing fine striped or lattice patterns. These patterns can conflict with a CRT monitor's pixels or printer's dot array, resulting in rainbow-colored or spiral patterns.

Motion Blur

When photographing moving subjects, motion blur helps give the actual feeling of movement. Using a slow shutter and other techniques can transmit the feeling of motion by blurring movement and giving the background a flowing look.

Motion Deblur Mode

Raises the shutter speed to clearly capture indoor and other dimly lit scenes without motion blur.


This data format is used in Apple/Quick Time software and well suited to video editing.


Standard for the compression and expansion (playback) of digital video, with MPEG1 and MPEG2 being the most widely used formats. Many digital cameras also use MPEG1 format when recording video.


Abbreviation for "MPEG Audio Layer 3." This is a popular format for digital audio compression. It compresses audio data to 1/10th its original size, while providing relatively high-quality music reproduction.

MP4 - MPEG-4

MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images. Like most modern container formats, it allows streaming over the Internet. This data format is well suited to playback on a PC.


This MP4 data format is well suited to video editing.

Multi-Flash Synchro

The simultaneous use of two or more flash units. This is used to both make the image look realistic, i.e., to prevent the lighting from becoming "flat," and to provide additional synchronized flash light when a single flash is insufficient.

Muti-zone metering

This light metering modeuses the camera's light receptors for metering, the camera calculates the light in each of the divided areas and determines the average exposure for the overall scene. Even when light and shadow sections are mixed in the subject, this method can produce an optimal exposure.

Camera terms that begin with the letter N

Nano Surface Coating Technology

The Nano Surface Coating (on Leica Dicomar Lens) boasts an extremely low reflectance ratio compared with the conventional multi coating to minimize ghosts and flaring. This Panasonic black box technology boosts the optical performance to deliver images with stunning clarity.

ND Filter

Abbreviation for Neutral Density Filter. Attached to the front of the camera's lens, it reduces the amount of light entering the lens. When light levels are strong, such as when outdoors in sunshine, attaching an ND filter allows you to use both your maximum aperture and slower shutter speeds.

Noise Reduction

A noise reduction function reduces noise resulting from a high ISO sensitivity. Note that a strong noise reduction effect tends to cause a loss of detail in the captured image. Thus, the noise reduction function should be used selectively according to the application or personal preference.

Non-Linear Editing

Video editing using a computer.
Linear Editing: Video editing using video tape.

Camera terms that begin with the letter O


The Optical Image Stabilizer moves some lens elements to direct the light straight onto the image sensor. Therefore, the full image sensor can be used so there is almost no loss of image quality.

OnePoint Color

This effect leaves one selected color to emphasize impressiveness.

One Push AE

On some LUMIX models a function button can be set as [One Push AE]. When the exposure setting is too bright or too dark, you can use one push AE to achieve a suitable exposure setting.

Optical Viewfinder

Except for the period that the camera's shutter is open, an optical viewfinder is a window that shows what the camera "sees." In a film camera, it is simply called the viewfinder. With a digital camera, however, since its rear-face LCD monitor can also be used as a viewfinder, the term "optical viewfinder" is used.

Optical Zoom

As the focal length of a zoom lens is changed, the subject is magnified. When an image is magnified via the lens, the resulting image looks natural.

Optimal Exposure

Refers to the exposure that will express the photographer's preconceived image in the resulting photograph. A subject always has only one "standard exposure," but there are an endless number of "optimal exposures" that express the photographer's intended image.

Camera terms that begin with the letter P


The technique of following a moving subject's direction and speed by swinging the camera so that the subject remains in the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take the picture. The resulting image will have the subject frozen and the background blurred, which accentuates the feeling of speed and motion.


The standard image format used with Macintosh computers.


This standard makes it possible to connect a digital camera directly to a printer for printing, without having to use a PC.


Digital cameras use an image sensor to capture images, instead of conventional film. An image sensor is a group of tiny pixels arranged in a grid. When light hits the pixels, each pixel generates an electrical charge according to the intensity of the light received. Converting those electrical charges into electrical signals forms the image.

PL (Polarizing) Filter

Abbreviation for polarizing filter. Attaching a PL filter to your camera lens not only cuts glare from the surface of glass and water, it also helps to deepen the color of blue skies or autumn leaves.


So many portraits of female models have been taken that a portrait has become synonymous with a picture of a woman.

Post Focus

With Post Focus, after recording is finished, you can select the desired points on the screen and save pictures in which the selected points are in focus. This function is suited for recording still objects.

Power O.I.S. (Optical Image Stabilizer)

This has double the corrective power of conventional MEGA O.I.S. (Panasonic comparison) for reducing low-frequency vibration, which is physically generated when pressing the shutter button or when shooting at night with a slow shutter speed.

Pre-Burst Recording

The camera starts recording approximately 1 second before the shutter button is pressed fully, so you will not miss a photo opportunity.


Used when photographing moving subjects. The photographer decides on a pre- determined point where the subject will pass and pre-focuses the lens on that point. When the subject passes, the photographer simply presses the shutter.

Preview Mode

The effects of aperture and shutter speed can be checked by using the Preview Mode.

  • Confirm the effects of aperture: You can check the depth of field (effective focus range) before taking a picture by closing the diaphragm blades to the aperture value you set.
  • Confirm the effects of shutter speed: Movement can be confirmed by displaying the actual picture that will be taken with that shutter speed.

Primary Colour Filter

A filter that uses the primary colours (red, green and blue) to ensure the correct extraction of colour information from the CCD. It is generally assumed that the use of this filter on a digital camera makes it easier to create vivid, rich colour images.

Program AE

Programe AEwill automatically set the shutter speed and the aperture value according to the brightness of the subject.

Program Shift

On some LUMIX cameras when you are in Program AE Mode, you can change the preset aperture value and shutter speed without changing the exposure. This is called Program Shift. You can make the background more blurred by decreasing the aperture value or record a moving subject more dynamically by slowing the shutter speed when taking a picture in Program AE Mode.

Camera terms that begin with the letter Q


A popular, easy-to-use multimedia software developed by Apple Corporation. Supports a wide variety of file types and can play back video, sound and image data.

Quick Menu

A camera feature that allows you to call frequently-used menus instantly. By using the Quick Menu, some of the menu settings can be easily found. The features that can be adjusted using Quick Menu are determined by the mode or a display style the camera is in.

Camera terms that begin with the letter R

Rack Focus Transition

The Focus Transition function automatically shifts the focus point at a constant speed for precise in-focus to out-focus points - for example background to foreground - to give you an impressive 'rack focus' motion picture effect.

RAW Format

A name for data read directly from the CCD, that has only been converted from analog to digital. Data output in this format is in its original state, i.e., it has not been processed internally by the digital camera.

Recording Media

The storage medium used to record an image. Functionally equivalent to film in a silver halide film camera. A wide variety of media can be used, such as memory cards (SD, Compact Flash, Memory Stick, etc.) and disk media (floppy, CD-R/RW, DVD-RW, etc.).


Reflection of flash light from the eye's blood vessels that gives the appearance of having red pupils. Often occurs when shooting outdoors in a dimly lit location, when the subject's pupils are dilated (opened). To prevent this, a series of pre-flashes from the flash unit constrict the subject's pupils before the flash is fired.

Reduce Rolling Shutter

Correcting 6K/4K Photos After Recording. A function where the camera corrects distortion in pictures caused by the electronic shutter (rolling shutter effect) when you save them.


Indicates the ability of a device to resolve detail. Most often used with lenses, it can also be used with monitors and printers.


The three primary colors in light: red, green and blue. PC monitors use the RGB color model to dislay color.

Camera terms that begin with the letter S

Scene Detection

The camera detects scenes automaticall and adjusts the camera seettings for the optimal shot. Common LUMIX scene modes include [i-Portrait] [i-Scenery] [i-Macro] [i-Night Portrait] [i-Night Scenery] [iHandheld Night Shot] [i-Food] [i-Baby] [i-Sunset] [i-Low Light]

SD Memory Card

A memory card that is the size of a postage stamp. The SD Memory Card has data security and write protect features.


An automatic feature that provides a delay after the photographer presses the shutter until the shutter actually opens, to allow the photographer to take a self-portrait or pose in a family or group picture, and to reduce hand- shake.


Indicates the degree of sensitivity of a given film or image sensor (CCD) to light. Film normally uses ISO values to indicate the level of sensitivity. With digital cameras, the sensitivity of the CCD can be set using ISO- equivalent values.


Expresses lens quality. Skillful balancing of the lens resolution and contrast increases sharpness. Film sharpness is also decided based on the balance of resolution and contrast.


One of the camera's most important mechanisms, the shutter controls the light exposure by opening for a precisely determined time and then closing. With film cameras, it can be a piece of black cloth or articulating steel in the center of the film chamber. It is designed to prevent light from striking the film surface while the shutter button is not pressed, and to regulate the amount striking the surface when the shutter button is pressed.

Shutter Button

Used to activate the shutter, this button is also known as the shutter release button (or release button).

Shutter Half-Press

Most cameras equipped with AE and auto- focus also have a 2-level shutter button. The first, or half, press measures and sets the scene's exposure value and subject distance. Pressing the button down completely then activates the shutter.

Shutter Mechanism

Shutter mechanisms can be roughly divided into mechanical types and electronic types. Mechanical types include Focal Plane Shutters and Lens Shutters.

Shutter Speed

Determines the length of time the shutter remains open to let in light. When the shutter speed is high, the amount of light allowed to enter the camera from the lens is small.

Shutter Priority AE Mode

Shutter Priority AE mode the camera automatically optimizes the aperture value for the brightness of the subject when you set the shutter speed.

Slow Sync./Red Eye

When taking pictures against a dark background landscape, this feature will slow the shutter speed when the flash is activated. Dark background landscape will appear brighter.


Abbreviation for a single reflex camera. A single lens is used for both viewfinder and for image capture.

Soft Focus

A method of softening highlights and other bright areas to give a scene a gentler, more delicate tone. Soft focus lenses and filters can be used to produce this effect.

Splash Proof

Splash Proof is a term used to describe an extra level of protection this camera offers against exposure to a minimal amount of moisture, water or dust. Splash Proof does not guarantee that damage will not occur if this camera is subjected to direct contact with water.

Spot Meter

Designed specifically for metering within a very narrow range. Used to closely meter a single portion of a subject.

Spot Metering

This light metering mode uses a small point in the center of the scene to meter exposure. This mode is useful when the subject and the background have a large difference in levels of light and shadow, or when you wish to capture only a portion of the subject.

Standard Exposure

Standard exposure refers to the amount of light needed to faithfully capture your subject. It is determined as the exposure value that allows areas with a reflective ratio of 18% to be correctly reproduced as 18% reflection.

Standard Reflective Ratio (Neutral Grey)

When measuring the amount of light reflected by an object, normally pure white reflects 90% of the available and pure black reflects 3%. Calculating the geometric average of these values gives the value of 18%. This value is referred to as the standard reflective ration and provides the exposure calculation standard for the camera, known as neutral grey.

Stop Motion Animation

A stop motion picture is created by splicing pictures together.

Synchro Contact (Hot Shoe)

A contact that synchronizes the shutter and flash light. Many high-end digital cameras are equipped with this contact, which allows the use of a synchronized external flash.

Synchro Scan

Fine-adjust the shutter speed to reduce flickering and horizontal stripes

System Frequency

This is the basic frequency for camera operation. Unit: Hz.

Camera terms that begin with the letter T

Telephoto Conversion Lens

A lens that attaches to the rear of another lens to increase its focal length. Allows the photographer to take photographs at longer distances.

Telephoto Lens

Among 35mm camera lenses, those with focal lengths of 70mm or longer are called telephoto lenses. Lenses with a focal length of 400mm or longer are called super telephoto lenses.


Small images, such as those on a digital camera's display or a PC, that give a preview of a larger image. They allow data to be easily checked or stored/cataloged.


One of the common image file data formats, like JPEG and GIF. This format does not compress image data and is a standard feature in most digital cameras. While TIFF format produces very high-quality pictures, the files are very large.

Time Code

A time stamp in motion pictures used for editing and camera sync

Time Lag

This refers to the time that is required before you can press the shutter button after first turning on a digital camera, and also to the time required for the shutter to actually open after the shutter button is pressed.

Time Lapse Shot

Taking Pictures Automatically at Set Intervals. The camera can automatically take pictures of subjects such as animals or plants as time elapses and create a motion picture.

Time Stamp Rec.

Record motion pictures and pictures with superimposed recording dates.

Touch Screen (Touch Operations)

A camera feature tht allows you to control the cameraby touchingthe panel directly with your finger.

Tracking (Focus)

The camera focuses on the subject you specify. The exposure will be optimized for the subject. Focus and exposure will keep on following the subject even if it moves.

TTL Metering

Abbreviation for "Through The Lens" metering. This system meters light that enters the camera through the lens. Since TTL uses the same light that will strike the film, the exposure taken will always be correct regardless of the lens or filter that is used.

Camera terms that begin with the letter U


When the exposure used is less than the correct value, the image will apear dark and is said to be underexposed.

Unsharp Mask

A tool often found in image editing software. Increases contrast at image edges and enhances the visibility of a boundary between light and dark tones which helps improve image clarity.


Abbreviation for Universal Serial Bus. One standard used for the transfer of data from peripheral devices to the PC. This convenient system allows the hot-swapping of connectors and the connection of up to 127 devices to a single USB port.


High-speed 480-Mbps data transfer interface. Approximately 40 times faster than USB1.1 (12 Mbps).

UV Filter

A filter designed to cut UV (ultraviolet) light. Also used as a lens protection filter.

Camera terms that begin with the letter V

Variable Frame Rate

The frame rate can be set to shoot in slow-motion or quick-motion.

VFR - Variable Frame Rate

This function changes the frame rate in shooting when recording the data, which realizes unique fast-motion and slow-motion effect.


The viewfinder is an essential part of the camera that lets you frame the picture and confirm that the focus is correct.


V-Log/V-LogL is designed to based on the Cineon Characteristic Curve.

Camera terms that begin with the letter W


The file extension (.wav) for standard Windows PC sound format files.

Wave Form Monitor & Vectorscope

To check brightness, luminance or chroma colour balance.

White Balance (WB)

Provides color temperature correction when taking photographs at different times on a sunny day, or in different types of artificial lighting. While differences exist between Auto WB and Manual WB types, this feature is found on every digital camera.

White Balance Bracket

A feature that allows you toautomatically take a series of images each with different hues while changing the white balance based on the present white balance setting.

Wide-Angle Lens

Describes any lens that provides a wider angle of view than a "standard" lens. With a 35mm camera, that means any lens with a focal length of less than 35mm can be called a wide-angle lens. Similarly, any lens with a focal length of 24mm or less can be called a super wide-angle lens. Often the distortion inherent in these lenses can be used to produce interesting and unique images.


Abrand name certifying that a device or other product is compatible with a set of broadband wireless networking standards.


A video format developed by Microsoft Corporation based on MPEG-4, the video compression standard. It is one of the formats supported as a standard feature by the Windows Media Player.

Camera terms that begin with the letter X

No terms

Camera terms that begin with the letter Y

No terms

Camera terms that begin with the letter Z

Zebra Pattern

This function displays a stripe pattern on parts of the image in which the luminance exceeds the set level. It is used to avoid blown highlights, and to set proper exposure levels

Zoom Ratio

The ratio of the longest focal length value of a zoom lens to its shortest focal length value. For example, the zoom ratio of a 35mm to 105mm lens is 3x.


Using a zoom lens to bring distant objects close-up from a fixed position by focusing from wide angle to telephoto, or conversely, zooming out from telephoto to wide angle.